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ANNEE : 2002

G-protein-coupled receptors for neurotransmitter amino acids: C-terminal tails, crowded signalosomes.

AUTEURS : El Far O, Betz H.

REVUE : Biochem J
N° Pubmed : 12006104
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a superfamily of highly diverse integral membrane proteins that transduce external signals to different subcellular compartments, including nuclei, via trimeric G-proteins. By differential activation of diffusible G(alpha) and membrane-bound G(beta)gamma subunits, GPCRs might act on both cytoplasmic/intracellular and plasma-membrane-bound effector systems. The coupling efficiency and the plasma membrane localization of GPCRs are regulated by a variety of interacting proteins. In this review, we discuss recently disclosed protein interactions found with the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail regions of two types of presynaptic neurotransmitter receptors, the group III metabotropic glutamate receptors and the gamma-aminobutyric acid type-B receptors (GABA(B)Rs). Calmodulin binding to mGluR7 and other group III mGluRs may provide a Ca(2+)-dependent switch for unidirectional (G(alpha)) versus bidirectional (G(alpha) and G(beta)gamma) signalling to downstream effector proteins. In addition, clustering of mGluR7 by PICK1 (protein interacting with C-kinase 1), a polyspecific PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg1/ZO-1) domain containing synaptic organizer protein, sheds light on how higher-order receptor complexes with regulatory enzymes (or 'signalosomes') could be formed. The interaction of GABA(B)Rs with the adaptor protein 14-3-3 and the transcription factor ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) suggests novel regulatory pathways for G-protein signalling, cytoskeletal reorganization and nuclear gene expression: processes that may all contribute to synaptic plasticity.