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ANNEE : 2017

The Segregated Expression of Voltage-Gated Potassium and Sodium Channels in neuronal membranes: functional implications and regulatory mechanisms

AUTEURS : Duménieu M, Oulé M, Kreutz MR, Lopez-Rojas J.

REVUE : Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Neurons are highly polarized cells with apparent functional and morphological differences between dendrites and axon. A critical determinant for the molecular and functional identity of axonal and dendritic segments is the restricted expression of voltage-gated ion channels (VGCs). Several studies show an uneven distribution of ion channels and their differential regulation within dendrites and axons, which is a prerequisite for an appropriate integration of synaptic inputs and the generation of adequate action potential (AP) firing patterns. This review article will focus on the signaling pathways leading to segmented expression of voltage-gated potassium and sodium ion channels at the neuronal plasma membrane and the regulatory mechanisms ensuring segregated functions. We will also discuss the relevance of proper ion channel targeting for neuronal physiology and how alterations in polarized distribution contribute to neuronal pathology.